Wednesday, June 29, 2016

LeetCode 369 - Plus One Linked List


http://www.cnblogs.com/grandyang/p/5626389.html
Given a non-negative number represented as a singly linked list of digits, plus one to the number.
The digits are stored such that the most significant digit is at the head of the list.
Example:
Input:
1->2->3

Output:
1->2->4
X. http://blog.csdn.net/jmspan/article/details/51780132
  1.     private ListNode reverse(ListNode head) {  
  2.         ListNode prev = null;  
  3.         ListNode current = head;  
  4.         while (current != null) {  
  5.             ListNode next = current.next;  
  6.             current.next = prev;  
  7.             prev = current;  
  8.             current = next;  
  9.         }  
  10.         return prev;  
  11.     }  
  12.     public ListNode plusOne(ListNode head) {  
  13.         if (head == nullreturn null;  
  14.         ListNode reversed = reverse(head);  
  15.         reversed.val ++;  
  16.         ListNode current = reversed;  
  17.         while (current != null && current.val >= 10) {  
  18.             current.val -= 10;  
  19.             if (current.next == null) {  
  20.                 current.next = new ListNode(1);  
  21.             } else {  
  22.                 current.next.val ++;  
  23.             }  
  24.             current = current.next;  
  25.         }  
  26.         reversed = reverse(reversed);  
  27.         return reversed;  
  28.     }  
这道题给了我们一个链表,用来模拟一个三位数,表头是高位,现在让我们进行加1运算,这道题的难点在于链表无法通过坐标来访问元素,只能通过遍历的方式进行,而这题刚好让我们从链尾开始操作,从后往前,遇到进位也要正确的处理,最后还有可能要在开头补上一位。那么我们反过来想,如果链尾是高位,那么进行加1运算就方便多了,直接就可以边遍历边进行运算处理,那么我们可以做的就是先把链表翻转一下,然后现在就是链尾是高位了,我们进行加1处理运算结束后,再把链表翻转回来即可.
    ListNode* plusOne(ListNode* head) {
        if (!head) return head;
        ListNode *rev_head = reverse(head), *cur = rev_head, *pre = cur;
        int carry = 1;
        while (cur) {
            pre = cur;
            int t = cur->val + carry;
            cur->val = t % 10;
            carry = t / 10;
            if (carry == 0) break;
            cur = cur->next;
        }
        if (carry) pre->next = new ListNode(1);
        return reverse(rev_head);
    }
    ListNode* reverse(ListNode *head) {
        if (!head) return head;
        ListNode *dummy = new ListNode(-1), *cur = head;
        dummy->next = head;
        while (cur->next) {
            ListNode *t = cur->next;
            cur->next = t->next;
            t->next = dummy->next;
            dummy->next = t;
        }
        return dummy->next;
    }
X.  
https://discuss.leetcode.com/topic/49551/java-elegant-backtracking-o-n-time-o-n-stack-space-with-comments
        public ListNode plusOne(ListNode head) {
            if (plusOneHelper(head) == 0) {
                return head;
            }
            //need addtional node
            ListNode newHead = new ListNode(1);
            newHead.next = head;
            return newHead;
        }
        
        // plus one for the rest of the list starting from node and return carry
     //because last node.next is null, let null return 1 and it is equivalent to  "plus one" to the least significant digit
   
        private int plusOneHelper(ListNode node) {
            if (node == null) {
                return 1;
            }
            int sum = node.val + plusOneHelper(node.next);
            node.val = sum % 10;
            return sum / 10;
        }
https://leetcode.com/discuss/111104/java-recursive-solution
Recursion! With recursion, we can visit list in reverse way!
public ListNode plusOne(ListNode head) { if( DFS(head) == 0){ return head; }else{ ListNode newHead = new ListNode(1); newHead.next = head; return newHead; } } public int DFS(ListNode head){ if(head == null) return 1; int carry = DFS(head.next); if(carry == 0) return 0; int val = head.val + 1; head.val = val%10; return val/10; }


public ListNode plusOne(ListNode head) {
    ListNode dummy = new ListNode(0);
    dummy.next = head;
    helper(dummy);
    return dummy.val == 0 ? head : dummy;
}

private int helper(ListNode node){
    if(node == null) return 1;
    node.val += helper(node.next);
    if(node.val <= 9) return 0;
    node.val %= 10;
    return 1;
}
我们也可以通过递归来实现,这样我们就不用翻转链表了,通过递归一层一层的调用,最先处理的是链尾元素,我们将其加1,然后看是否有进位,返回进位,然后回溯到表头,加完进位,如果发现又差生了新的进位,那么我们在最开头加上一个新节点即可
    ListNode* plusOne(ListNode* head) {
        if (!head) return head;
        int carry = helper(head);
        if (carry == 1) {
            ListNode *res = new ListNode(1);
            res->next = head;
            return res;
        }
        return head;
    }
    int helper(ListNode *node) {
        if (!node) return 1;
        int carry = helper(node->next);
        int sum = node->val + carry;
        node->val = sum % 10;
        return
If the +1 was already handled without further carry, then the result is the given head node. Otherwise it's a new node (with carry value 1). In other words, a carry-node is created at the end and gets carried towards the front until it has been fully integrated.
public ListNode plusOne(ListNode head) { if (head == null) return new ListNode(1); ListNode plused = plusOne(head.next); if (plused != head.next) head.val++; if (head.val <= 9) return head; head.val = 0; plused.next = head; return plused; }

  • i stands for the most significant digit that is going to be incremented if there exists a carry
  • dummy node can handle cases such as "9->9>-9" automatically
public ListNode plusOne(ListNode head) { ListNode dummy = new ListNode(0); dummy.next = head; ListNode i = dummy; ListNode j = dummy; while (j.next != null) { j = j.next; if (j.val != 9) { i = j; } } if (j.val != 9) { j.val++; } else { i.val++; i = i.next; while (i != null) { i.val = 0; i = i.next; } } if (dummy.val == 0) { return dummy.next; } return dummy; }
public ListNode plusOne(ListNode head) { ListNode dummy = new ListNode(0); dummy.next = head; ListNode i = dummy; ListNode j = dummy; while (j.next != null) { j = j.next; if (j.val != 9) { i = j; } } // i = index of last non-9 digit i.val++; i = i.next; while (i != null) { i.val = 0; i = i.next; } if (dummy.val == 0) return dummy.next; return dummy; }
下面这种方法比较巧妙了,思路是遍历链表,找到第一个不为9的数字,如果找不这样的数字,说明所有数字均为9,那么在表头新建一个值为0的新节点,进行加1处理,然后把右边所有的数字都置为0即可。举例来说:
比如1->2->3,那么第一个不为9的数字为3,对3进行加1,变成4,右边没有节点了,所以不做处理,返回1->2->4。
再比如说8->9->9,找第一个不为9的数字为8,进行加1处理变成了9,然后把后面的数字都置0,得到结果9->0->0。
再来看9->9->9的情况,找不到不为9的数字,那么再前面新建一个值为0的节点,进行加1处理变成了1,把后面的数字都置0,得到1->0->0->0。
    ListNode* plusOne(ListNode* head) {
        ListNode *cur = head, *right = NULL;
        while (cur) {
            if (cur->val != 9) right = cur;
            cur = cur->next;
        }
        if (!right) {
            right = new ListNode(0);
            right->next = head;
            head = right;
        }
        ++right->val;
        cur = right->next;
        while (cur) {
            cur->val = 0;
            cur = cur->next;
        }
        return head;
    }
最后这种解法是解法二的迭代写法,我们用到栈,利用栈的先进后出机制,就可以实现从后往前的处理节点
    ListNode* plusOne(ListNode* head) {
        stack<ListNode*> s;
        ListNode *cur = head;
        while (cur) {
            s.push(cur);
            cur = cur->next;
        }
        int carry = 1;
        while (!s.empty() && carry) {
            ListNode *t = s.top(); s.pop();
            int sum = t->val + carry;
            t->val = sum % 10;
            carry = sum / 10;
        }
        if (carry) {
            ListNode *new_head = new ListNode(1);
            new_head->next = head;
            head = new_head;
        }
        return head;
    }

https://discuss.leetcode.com/topic/52174/java-o-n-time-o-1-space-short-solution
The idea is to find the first non-nine node from the right.
Increase its val by 1 and change everything behind it to zero.
public ListNode plusOne(ListNode head) {
    ListNode notNine = new ListNode(0);
    notNine.next = head;
    head = notNine;
    for (ListNode node = head; node != null; node = node.next)
        if (node.val != 9) notNine = node;
    notNine.val += 1;
    for (ListNode node = notNine.next; node != null; node = node.next)
        node.val = 0;
    return head.val > 0 ? head : head.next;
}

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