## Sunday, April 23, 2017

### Minimum swaps to reach permuted array with at most 2 positions left swaps allowed - GeeksforGeeks

Minimum swaps to reach permuted array with at most 2 positions left swaps allowed - GeeksforGeeks
Given a permuted array of length N of first N natural numbers, we need to tell the minimum number of swaps required in the sorted array of first N natural number to reach given permuted array where a number can be swapped with at most 2 positions left to it. If it is not possible to reach permuted array by above swap condition then print not possible.
Examples:
```Input : arr = [1, 2, 5, 3, 4]
Output : 2
We can reach to above-permuted array
in total 2 swaps as shown below,
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5] -> [1, 2, 3, 5, 4] ->
[1, 2, 5, 3, 4]
```
We can solve this problem using inversions. As we can see that if a number is at a position which is more than 2 places away from its actual position then it is not possible to reach there just by swapping with elements at 2 left positions and if all element satisfy this property (there are <=2 elements smaller than it on the right) then answer will simply be total number of inversions in the array because that many swaps will be needed to transform the array into permuted array.
We can find the number of inversions in N log N time using merge sort technique explained here so total time complexity of solution will be O(N log N) only.

`/* This funt merges two sorted arrays and returns inversion`
`   ``count in the arrays.*/`
`int` `merge(``int` `arr[], ``int` `temp[], ``int` `left, ``int` `mid, ``int` `right)`
`{`
`    ``int` `inv_count = 0;`
`    ``int` `i = left; ``/* i is index for left subarray*/`
`    ``int` `j = mid;  ``/* j is index for right subarray*/`
`    ``int` `k = left; ``/* k is index for resultant merged subarray*/`
`    ``while` `((i <= mid - 1) && (j <= right))`
`    ``{`
`        ``if` `(arr[i] <= arr[j])`
`            ``temp[k++] = arr[i++];`
`        ``else`
`        ``{`
`            ``temp[k++] = arr[j++];`
`            ``inv_count = inv_count + (mid - i);`
`        ``}`
`    ``}`
`    ``/* Copy the remaining elements of left subarray`
`    ``(if there are any) to temp*/`
`    ``while` `(i <= mid - 1)`
`        ``temp[k++] = arr[i++];`
`    ``/* Copy the remaining elements of right subarray`
`    ``(if there are any) to temp*/`
`    ``while` `(j <= right)`
`       ``temp[k++] = arr[j++];`
`    ``/*Copy back the merged elements to original array*/`
`    ``for` `(i = left; i <= right; i++)`
`        ``arr[i] = temp[i];`
`    ``return` `inv_count;`
`}`
`/* An auxiliary recursive function that sorts the`
`   ``input array and returns the number of inversions`
`   ``in the array. */`
`int` `_mergeSort(``int` `arr[], ``int` `temp[], ``int` `left, ``int` `right)`
`{`
`    ``int` `mid, inv_count = 0;`
`    ``if` `(right > left)`
`    ``{`
`        ``/* Divide the array into two parts and`
`           ``call _mergeSortAndCountInv() for each`
`           ``of the parts */`
`        ``mid = (right + left)/2;`
`        ``/* Inversion count will be sum of inversions`
`          ``in left-part, right-part and number of inversions`
`          ``in merging */`
`        ``inv_count  = _mergeSort(arr, temp, left, mid);`
`        ``inv_count += _mergeSort(arr, temp, mid+1, right);`
`        ``/*Merge the two parts*/`
`        ``inv_count += merge(arr, temp, left, mid+1, right);`
`    ``}`
`    ``return` `inv_count;`
`}`
`/* This function sorts the input array and returns the`
`   ``number of inversions in the array */`
`int` `mergeSort(``int` `arr[], ``int` `array_size)`
`{`
`    ``int` `*temp = (``int` `*)``malloc``(``sizeof``(``int``)*array_size);`
`    ``return` `_mergeSort(arr, temp, 0, array_size - 1);`
`}`
`// method returns minimum number of swaps to reach`
`// permuted array 'arr'`
`int` `minSwapToReachArr(``int` `arr[], ``int` `N)`
`{`
`    ``//  loop over all elements to check Invalid`
`    ``// permutation condition`
`    ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < N; i++)`
`    ``{`
`        ``/*  if an element is at distance more than 2`
`            ``from its actual position then it is not`
`            ``possible to reach permuted array just`
`            ``by swapping with 2 positions left elements`
`            ``so returning -1   */`
`        ``if` `((arr[i] - 1) - i > 2)`
`            ``return` `-1;`
`    ``}`
`    ``/*  If permuted array is not Invalid, then number`
`        ``of Inversion in array will be our final answer */`
`    ``int` `numOfInversion = mergeSort(arr, N);`
`    ``return` `numOfInversion;`
`}`
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