Wednesday, August 31, 2016

Find number of times a string occurs as a subsequence in given string - GeeksforGeeks


Find number of times a string occurs as a subsequence in given string - GeeksforGeeks
Given two strings, find the number of times the second string occurs in the first string, whether continuous or discontinuous.

If we carefully analyze the given problem, we can see that it can be easily divided into sub-problems. The idea is to process all characters of both strings one by one staring from either from left or right side. Let us traverse from right corner, there are two possibilities for every pair of character being traversed.
// Iterative DP function to find the number of times
// the second string occurs in the first string,
// whether continuous or discontinuous
int count(string a, string b)
{
    int m = a.length();
    int n = b.length();
 
    // Create a table to store results of sub-problems
    int lookup[m + 1][n + 1] = { { 0 } };
 
    // If first string is empty
    for (int i = 0; i <= n; ++i)
        lookup[0][i] = 0;
 
    // If second string is empty
    for (int i = 0; i <= m; ++i)
        lookup[i][0] = 1;
 
    // Fill lookup[][] in bottom up manner
    for (int i = 1; i <= m; i++)
    {
        for (int j = 1; j <= n; j++)
        {
            // If last characters are same, we have two
            // options -
            // 1. consider last characters of both strings
            //    in solution
            // 2. ignore last character of first string
            if (a[i - 1] == b[j - 1])
                lookup[i][j] = lookup[i - 1][j - 1] +
                               lookup[i - 1][j];
                 
            else
                // If last character are different, ignore
                // last character of first string
                lookup[i][j] = lookup[i - 1][j];
        }
    }
 
    return lookup[m][n];
}
m: Length of str1 (first string)
n: Length of str2 (second string)

If last characters of two strings are same, 
   1. We consider last characters and get count for remaining 
      strings. So we recur for lengths m-1 and n-1. 
   2. We can ignore last character of first string and 
      recurse for lengths m-1 and n.
else 
If last characters are not same, 
   We ignore last character of first string and 
   recurse for lengths m-1 and n.
int count(string a, string b, int m, int n)
{
    // If both first and second string is empty,
    // or if second string is empty, return 1
    if ((m == 0 && n == 0) || n == 0)
        return 1;
 
    // If only first string is empty and second
    // string is not empty, return 0
    if (m == 0)
        return 0;
 
    // If last characters are same
    // Recur for remaining strings by
    // 1. considering last characters of both strings
    // 2. ignoring last character of first string
    if (a[m - 1] == b[n - 1])
        return count(a, b, m - 1, n - 1) +
               count(a, b, m - 1, n);
    else
        // If last characters are different, ignore
        // last char of first string and recur for
        // remaining string
        return count(a, b, m - 1, n);
}

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