Sunday, May 15, 2016

FootBall Points


https://github.com/xieqilu/Qilu-leetcode/blob/master/B228.FootBallPoints.cs
第一个是football题,比赛得分可能得3分,也可能得6分,如果得了6分得话,
后面还可以选择什么touch down或者kick,分别又是得1分或2分,然后如果给你一个N分,问你有几种可能。
就是把这个想成一个树形结构,root是N,下面可以有3、6、7、8,然后每个再下面又3、6、7、8
这样递归一个就好了,代码很简单
http://buttercola.blogspot.com/2016/06/football-game.html
对于每一个得分N, 可能接下来的得分就是N + 3, N + 6, N + 7, N + 8. 从比分0向下递推,直到最后的得分是N。
Define dp[n + 1], where dp[i] is the number of possible ways for score i.
dp[i] = dp[i - 3] + dp[i - 6] + dp[i - 7] + dp[i - 8];
  public int getScoreDP(int n) {
    if (n < 3) {
      return 0;
    }
     
    int[] dp = new int[n + 1];
    dp[3] = 1;
    dp[6] = 2;
    dp[7] = 1;
    dp[8] = 1;
     
    for (int i = 9; i <= n; i++) {
      dp[i] = dp[i - 3] + dp[i - 6] + dp[i - 7] + dp[i - 8];
    }
     
    return dp[n];
  }  

  private int result = 0;
  public int getScore(int n) {
    if (n < 3) {
      return 0;
    }
     
    getScoreHelper(n);
     
    return result;
  }
   
  private void getScoreHelper(int n) {
    if (n == 0) {
      result++;
      return;
    }
     
    if (n < 3) {
      return;
    }
     
    getScoreHelper(n - 3);
    getScoreHelper(n - 6);
    getScoreHelper(n - 7);
    getScoreHelper(n - 8);
  }


Idea:
This problem is very similar to Fibonacci sequence. We can solve it both bottom-up and top-down.
According to the description, each time, we can score 3 points, 6 points, 7 points or 8 points.
Our task is to find out how many different combinations to score N points. For N points, we know
from the last play, we have four situations that can lead to N points which are N-3 points, N-6
points, N-7 points and N-8 points. Suppose f(n) is the number of combinations to score n points.
If we already know f(n-3), f(n-6), f(n-7), f(n-8), then by summing them up we can get f(n). So
the recursion relationship is as follows:
f(n) = f(n-6) + f(n-3) + f(n-7) + f(n-8)
And the base case is when we only need to score 0 points, we can always have one way to do that, we
don't play at all. And obviously if n is less than 0, no way to score a negative points. Thus we
actually have two base cases:
f(0) = 1 and when n<0 f(n) = 0.
So we can easily solve this problem using recursion. In order to make the algorithm more efficient,
we can use an array to cache results of recursion so that we don't need to calculate f(n) repeatedly.
We can also use Dynamic Programming to solve this problem from bottom-up and don't use recursion at all.
Solution1:  Naive Recursive solution
Don't use any cache, for any n, we use recursion to get its value. Then the calling structure is
actually like a tree in which each root has 4 children. Thus the time complexiy is O(4^n) and since
execution stack will hold all recursive call, so the space complexity is also likely O(4^n). Both
are not efficient.

Solution2: Recursive solution with caching
We can use an array with size of n+1 to cache all intermediate results for the recursive calls.
And cache[n] is the number of combinations for scoring n points. Initially cache[0] is 1 and all
other cache[i] is -1. So in the recursive call, if n<0, return 0. Then we look up cache[n], if it
is -1, means cache[n] is not filled yet. So we use recursion to calculate cache[n] and return it. If
cache[n] is not -1, means it's been filled before, so we directly return its value.
Then we will only fill each cache[i] for once, so the time and space complexity are both O(n).

Solution3: DP solution
We also use an array with size of n+1, and dp[i] is the number of combinations to score i points.
Then we can actually fill the array dp from smaller index to larger index (bottom-up). First set
dp[0] =1, then traverse from i=0 to n, for each i we add the value of dp[i] to dp[i+3], dp[i+6],
dp[i+7] and dp[i+8]. Because in the tree structure, dp[i] could be child of those 4 roots. If i+3,
i+6, i+7. i+8 are larger than n, we just ignore them since we only need to know dp[n]. After the
loop, return n.
Obviously the time and space complexity are both O(n).

//Solution1: Top-Down Naive Recursive Solution (with no caching)
//Time: O(4^n)  Space: O(1)
public static int FootBall(int n){
if(n==0)  //base case#1
return 1;
if(n<0)   //base case#2
return 0;
return FootBall(n-3) + FootBall(n-6) + FootBall(n-7) + FootBall(n-8);
}

//Solution2: Top-Down Recursive Solution with caching
//Time: O(n)  Space: O(n)
public static int FootBallCaching(int n){
int[] cache = new int[n+1];
for(int i=1;i<n+1;i++)
cache[i] = -1;
cache[0] = 1;
return Helper(n, cache);
}

private static int Helper(int n, int[] cache){
if(n<0)
return 0;
if(cache[n]!=-1) //if cache[n] is already calculated, directly get the value
return cache[n];
cache[n] = Helper(n-3,cache)+Helper(n-6,cache)+Helper(n-7,cache)+Helper(n-8,cache);
return cache[n];
}

//Solution3: Bottom-Up Dynamic Programming Solution  Time: O(n) Space: O(n)
//Better than naive recursive solution
public static int FootBallIter(int n){
int[] dp = new int[n+1];
dp[0] = 1;
for(int i=0;i<n+1;i++){ //O(n)
if(i+3<n+1)
dp[i+3]+=dp[i];
if(i+6<n+1)
dp[i+6]+=dp[i];
if(i+7<n+1)
dp[i+7]+=dp[i];
if(i+8<n+1)
dp[i+8]+=dp[i];
}
return dp[n];
}


No comments:

Post a Comment

Labels

GeeksforGeeks (1107) LeetCode (985) Algorithm (795) Review (759) to-do (631) LeetCode - Review (506) Classic Algorithm (324) Dynamic Programming (292) Classic Interview (288) Google Interview (242) Tree (145) POJ (139) Difficult Algorithm (132) LeetCode - Phone (127) EPI (125) Different Solutions (120) Bit Algorithms (118) Lintcode (113) Cracking Coding Interview (110) Smart Algorithm (109) Math (107) HackerRank (89) Binary Search (81) Binary Tree (80) Graph Algorithm (74) Greedy Algorithm (72) DFS (66) LeetCode - Extended (62) Interview Corner (61) Stack (60) List (58) Advanced Data Structure (56) Codility (54) BFS (53) ComProGuide (52) Algorithm Interview (50) Geometry Algorithm (48) Binary Search Tree (46) USACO (46) Trie (45) Mathematical Algorithm (42) ACM-ICPC (41) Interval (41) Data Structure (40) Knapsack (40) Space Optimization (40) Jobdu (39) Recursive Algorithm (39) LeetCode Hard (38) Matrix (38) String Algorithm (38) Backtracking (36) Codeforces (36) Introduction to Algorithms (36) Must Known (36) Beauty of Programming (35) Sort (35) Union-Find (34) Array (33) prismoskills (33) Segment Tree (32) Sliding Window (32) Data Structure Design (31) HDU (31) Google Code Jam (30) Permutation (30) Puzzles (30) Array O(N) (29) Company-Airbnb (29) Company-Zenefits (28) Microsoft 100 - July (28) Palindrome (28) to-do-must (28) Priority Queue (27) Random (27) Graph (26) Company - LinkedIn (25) GeeksQuiz (25) Logic Thinking (25) Pre-Sort (25) hihocoder (25) Queue (24) Company-Facebook (23) High Frequency (23) TopCoder (23) Algorithm Game (22) Hash (22) Post-Order Traverse (22) Binary Indexed Trees (21) Bisection Method (21) DFS + Review (21) Lintcode - Review (21) Brain Teaser (20) CareerCup (20) Company - Twitter (20) Merge Sort (20) Follow Up (19) O(N) (19) Time Complexity (19) Two Pointers (19) UVA (19) Ordered Stack (18) Probabilities (18) Company-Uber (17) Game Theory (17) Topological Sort (17) Codercareer (16) Heap (16) Shortest Path (16) String Search (16) Tree Traversal (16) itint5 (16) Difficult (15) Iterator (15) BST (14) Number (14) Number Theory (14) Amazon Interview (13) Basic Algorithm (13) Codechef (13) Euclidean GCD (13) KMP (13) Long Increasing Sequence(LIS) (13) Majority (13) mitbbs (13) Combination (12) Computational Geometry (12) LeetCode - Classic (12) Modify Tree (12) Reconstruct Tree (12) Reservoir Sampling (12) Reverse Thinking (12) 尺取法 (12) AOJ (11) DFS+Backtracking (11) Fast Power Algorithm (11) Graph DFS (11) LCA (11) LeetCode - DFS (11) Miscs (11) Princeton (11) Proof (11) Tree DP (11) X Sum (11) 挑战程序设计竞赛 (11) Bisection (10) Bucket Sort (10) Coin Change (10) Company - Microsoft (10) DFS+Cache (10) Facebook Hacker Cup (10) HackerRank Easy (10) O(1) Space (10) Rolling Hash (10) SPOJ (10) Theory (10) Tutorialhorizon (10) DP-Multiple Relation (9) DP-Space Optimization (9) Divide and Conquer (9) Kadane - Extended (9) Mathblog (9) Max-Min Flow (9) Prefix Sum (9) Quick Sort (9) Simulation (9) Stack Overflow (9) Stock (9) System Design (9) TreeMap (9) Use XOR (9) Book Notes (8) Bottom-Up (8) Company-Amazon (8) DFS+BFS (8) LeetCode - DP (8) Left and Right Array (8) Linked List (8) Longest Common Subsequence(LCS) (8) Prime (8) Suffix Tree (8) Tech-Queries (8) Traversal Once (8) 穷竭搜索 (8) Algorithm Problem List (7) Expression (7) Facebook Interview (7) Fibonacci Numbers (7) Game Nim (7) Graph BFS (7) HackerRank Difficult (7) Hackerearth (7) Interval Tree (7) Inversion (7) Kadane’s Algorithm (7) Level Order Traversal (7) Math-Divisible (7) Probability DP (7) Quick Select (7) Radix Sort (7) n00tc0d3r (7) 蓝桥杯 (7) Catalan Number (6) Classic Data Structure Impl (6) DFS+DP (6) DP - Tree (6) DP-Print Solution (6) Dijkstra (6) Dutch Flag (6) How To (6) Interviewstreet (6) Knapsack - MultiplePack (6) Manacher (6) Minimum Spanning Tree (6) Morris Traversal (6) Multiple Data Structures (6) One Pass (6) Programming Pearls (6) Pruning (6) Rabin-Karp (6) Randomized Algorithms (6) Sampling (6) Schedule (6) Stream (6) Suffix Array (6) Threaded (6) TreeSet (6) Xpost (6) reddit (6) AI (5) Algorithm - Brain Teaser (5) Art Of Programming-July (5) Big Data (5) Brute Force (5) Code Kata (5) Codility-lessons (5) Coding (5) Company - WMware (5) Convex Hull (5) Crazyforcode (5) Cycle (5) DP-Include vs Exclude (5) Fast Slow Pointers (5) Graph Cycle (5) Hash Strategy (5) Immutability (5) Java (5) Matrix Chain Multiplication (5) Maze (5) Microsoft Interview (5) Pre-Sum (5) Quadtrees (5) Quick Partition (5) Quora (5) SPFA(Shortest Path Faster Algorithm) (5) Subarray Sum (5) Sudoku (5) Sweep Line (5) Word Search (5) jiuzhang (5) 单调栈 (5) 树形DP (5) 1point3acres (4) Abbreviation (4) Anagram (4) Anagrams (4) Approximate Algorithm (4) Backtracking-Include vs Exclude (4) Brute Force - Enumeration (4) Chess Game (4) Consistent Hash (4) Distributed (4) Eulerian Cycle (4) Find Rule (4) Flood fill (4) Graph-Classic (4) HackerRank AI (4) Histogram (4) Kadane Max Sum (4) Knapsack - Mixed (4) Knapsack - Unbounded (4) LeetCode - Recursive (4) LeetCode - TODO (4) MST (4) MinMax (4) N Queens (4) Nerd Paradise (4) Parallel Algorithm (4) Practical Algorithm (4) Probability (4) Programcreek (4) Spell Checker (4) Stock Maximize (4) Subset Sum (4) Subsets (4) Symbol Table (4) Triangle (4) Water Jug (4) algnotes (4) fgdsb (4) to-do-2 (4) 最大化最小值 (4) A Star (3) Algorithm - How To (3) Algorithm Design (3) B Tree (3) Big Data Algorithm (3) Caterpillar Method (3) Coins (3) Company - Groupon (3) Company - Indeed (3) Cumulative Sum (3) DP-Fill by Length (3) DP-Two Variables (3) Dedup (3) Dequeue (3) Dropbox (3) Easy (3) Finite Automata (3) Github (3) GoLang (3) Graph - Bipartite (3) Include vs Exclude (3) Joseph (3) Jump Game (3) K (3) Knapsack-多重背包 (3) LeetCode - Bit (3) Linked List Merge Sort (3) LogN (3) Master Theorem (3) Min Cost Flow (3) Minesweeper (3) Missing Numbers (3) NP Hard (3) O(N) Hard (3) Online Algorithm (3) Pascal's Triangle (3) Pattern Match (3) Project Euler (3) Rectangle (3) Scala (3) SegmentFault (3) Shuffle (3) Sieve of Eratosthenes (3) Stack - Smart (3) State Machine (3) Subtree (3) Transform Tree (3) Trie + DFS (3) Two Pointers Window (3) Warshall Floyd (3) With Random Pointer (3) Word Ladder (3) bookkeeping (3) codebytes (3) Activity Selection Problem (2) Advanced Algorithm (2) AnAlgorithmADay (2) Application of Algorithm (2) Array Merge (2) BOJ (2) BT - Path Sum (2) Balanced Binary Search Tree (2) Bellman Ford (2) Binary Search - Smart (2) Binomial Coefficient (2) Bit Counting (2) Bit Mask (2) Bit-Difficult (2) Bloom Filter (2) Book Coding Interview (2) Branch and Bound Method (2) Clock (2) Codesays (2) Company - Baidu (2) Company-Snapchat (2) Complete Binary Tree (2) DFS+BFS, Flood Fill (2) DP - DFS (2) DP-3D Table (2) DP-Classical (2) DP-Output Solution (2) DP-Slide Window Gap (2) DP-i-k-j (2) DP-树形 (2) Distributed Algorithms (2) Divide and Conqure (2) Doubly Linked List (2) Edit Distance (2) Factor (2) Forward && Backward Scan (2) GoHired (2) Graham Scan (2) Graph BFS+DFS (2) Graph Coloring (2) Graph-Cut Vertices (2) Hamiltonian Cycle (2) Huffman Tree (2) In-order Traverse (2) Include or Exclude Last Element (2) Information Retrieval (2) Interview - Linkedin (2) Invariant (2) Islands (2) Linked Interview (2) Linked List Sort (2) Longest SubArray (2) Lucene-Solr (2) Math-Remainder Queue (2) Matrix Power (2) Median (2) Minimum Vertex Cover (2) Negative All Values (2) Number Each Digit (2) Numerical Method (2) Object Design (2) Order Statistic Tree (2) Parent-Only Tree (2) Parentheses (2) Parser (2) Peak (2) Programming (2) Range Minimum Query (2) Regular Expression (2) Return Multiple Values (2) Reuse Forward Backward (2) Robot (2) Rosettacode (2) Scan from right (2) Search (2) SimHash (2) Simple Algorithm (2) Skyline (2) Spatial Index (2) Strongly Connected Components (2) Summary (2) TV (2) Tile (2) Traversal From End (2) Tree Sum (2) Tree Traversal Return Multiple Values (2) Word Break (2) Word Graph (2) Word Trie (2) Yahoo Interview (2) Young Tableau (2) 剑指Offer (2) 数位DP (2) 1-X (1) 51Nod (1) Akka (1) Algorithm - New (1) Algorithm Series (1) Algorithms Part I (1) Analysis of Algorithm (1) Array-Element Index Negative (1) Array-Rearrange (1) Augmented BST (1) Auxiliary Array (1) Auxiliary Array: Inc&Dec (1) BACK (1) BK-Tree (1) BZOJ (1) Basic (1) Bayes (1) Beauty of Math (1) Big Integer (1) Big Number (1) Binary (1) Binary Sarch Tree (1) Binary String (1) Binary Tree Variant (1) Bipartite (1) Bit-Missing Number (1) BitMap (1) BitMap index (1) BitSet (1) Bug Free Code (1) BuildIt (1) C/C++ (1) CC Interview (1) Cache (1) Calculate Height at Same Recusrion (1) Cartesian tree (1) Check Tree Property (1) Chinese (1) Circular Buffer (1) Cloest (1) Clone (1) Code Quality (1) Codesolutiony (1) Company - Alibaba (1) Company - Palantir (1) Company - WalmartLabs (1) Company-Apple (1) Company-Epic (1) Company-Salesforce (1) Company-Yelp (1) Compression Algorithm (1) Concurrency (1) Cont Improvement (1) Convert BST to DLL (1) Convert DLL to BST (1) Custom Sort (1) Cyclic Replacement (1) DFS-Matrix (1) DP - Probability (1) DP Fill Diagonal First (1) DP-Difficult (1) DP-End with 0 or 1 (1) DP-Fill Diagonal First (1) DP-Graph (1) DP-Left and Right Array (1) DP-MaxMin (1) DP-Memoization (1) DP-Node All Possibilities (1) DP-Optimization (1) DP-Preserve Previous Value (1) DP-Print All Solution (1) Database (1) Detect Negative Cycle (1) Diagonal (1) Directed Graph (1) Do Two Things at Same Recusrion (1) Domino (1) Dr Dobb's (1) Duplicate (1) Equal probability (1) External Sort (1) FST (1) Failure Function (1) Fraction (1) Front End Pointers (1) Funny (1) Fuzzy String Search (1) Game (1) Generating Function (1) Generation (1) Genetic algorithm (1) GeoHash (1) Geometry - Orientation (1) Google APAC (1) Graph But No Graph (1) Graph Transpose (1) Graph Traversal (1) Graph-Coloring (1) Graph-Longest Path (1) Gray Code (1) HOJ (1) Hanoi (1) Hard Algorithm (1) How Hash (1) How to Test (1) Improve It (1) In Place (1) Inorder-Reverse Inorder Traverse Simultaneously (1) Interpolation search (1) Interview (1) Interview - Facebook (1) Isomorphic (1) JDK8 (1) K Dimensional Tree (1) Knapsack - Fractional (1) Knapsack - ZeroOnePack (1) Knight (1) Knuth Shuffle (1) Kosaraju’s algorithm (1) Kruskal (1) Kth Element (1) Least Common Ancestor (1) LeetCode - Binary Tree (1) LeetCode - Coding (1) LeetCode - Detail (1) LeetCode - Related (1) Linked List Reverse (1) Linkedin (1) Linkedin Interview (1) Local MinMax (1) Logic Pattern (1) Longest Common Subsequence (1) Longest Common Substring (1) Longest Prefix Suffix(LPS) (1) Machine Learning (1) Maintain State (1) Manhattan Distance (1) Map && Reverse Map (1) Math - Induction (1) Math-Multiply (1) Math-Sum Of Digits (1) Matrix - O(N+M) (1) Matrix BFS (1) Matrix Graph (1) Matrix Search (1) Matrix+DP (1) Matrix-Rotate (1) Max Min So Far (1) Memory-Efficient (1) MinHash (1) MinMax Heap (1) Monotone Queue (1) Monto Carlo (1) Multi-End BFS (1) Multi-Reverse (1) Multiple DFS (1) Multiple Tasks (1) Next Element (1) Next Successor (1) Offline Algorithm (1) PAT (1) Parenthesis (1) Partition (1) Path Finding (1) Patience Sort (1) Persistent (1) Pigeon Hole Principle (1) Power Set (1) Pratical Algorithm (1) PreProcess (1) Probabilistic Data Structure (1) Python (1) Queue & Stack (1) RSA (1) Ranking (1) Rddles (1) ReHash (1) Realtime (1) Recurrence Relation (1) Recursive DFS (1) Recursive to Iterative (1) Red-Black Tree (1) Region (1) Resources (1) Reverse Inorder Traversal (1) Robin (1) Selection (1) Self Balancing BST (1) Similarity (1) Sort && Binary Search (1) Square (1) Streaming Algorithm (1) String Algorithm. Symbol Table (1) String DP (1) String Distance (1) SubMatrix (1) Subsequence (1) System of Difference Constraints(差分约束系统) (1) TSP (1) Ternary Search Tree (1) Test (1) Test Cases (1) Thread (1) TimSort (1) Top-Down (1) Tournament (1) Tournament Tree (1) Transform Tree in Place (1) Tree Diameter (1) Tree Rotate (1) Tree Without Tree Predefined (1) Trie and Heap (1) Trie vs Hash (1) Trie vs HashMap (1) Triplet (1) Two Data Structures (1) Two Stacks (1) USACO - Classical (1) USACO - Problems (1) UyHiP (1) Valid Tree (1) Vector (1) Virtual Matrix (1) Wiggle Sort (1) Wikipedia (1) ZOJ (1) ZigZag (1) baozitraining (1) codevs (1) cos126 (1) javabeat (1) jum (1) namic Programming (1) sqrt(N) (1) 两次dijkstra (1) 九度 (1) 二进制枚举 (1) 夹逼法 (1) 归一化 (1) 折半枚举 (1) 枚举 (1) 状态压缩DP (1) 男人八题 (1) 英雄会 (1) 逆向思维 (1)

Popular Posts